Verb -> Participle <- Adjective

  • वैसा Verb जो ing form(V4) या ed form (V3) में रहे, लेकिन शब्द Adjective का काम करें, तो यह Participle माना जाएगा Participle तीन प्रकार के होते है –
  1. Present Participle – Verb+ing (Burning train, Rolling stone)
  2. Past Participle – Verb in 3rd form (Broken chair, endangered heart)
  3. Perfect Participle – Having


  • A rolling stones gathers no mass.
  • Endangered species are kept safely.
  • She having gone home she took a cup of tea.


Verb -> Gerund <- Noun

वैसे Verb जिसकी समाप्ति (ending) ing से हो या Verb 4th form gerund कहलाता है निम्न स्थितियों में V4 को Gerund माना जाएगा |

  • V4+Auxiliary Verb

  • Main Verb+V4
  • Preposition+V4
  • Possessive Adjective+V4

निम्न शब्दों के बाद V4 का प्रयोग किया जाता है to+V1 का नहीं –

Deny, Finish, Enjoy, Busy, Worth, like, Dislike, Detest, Remember.


  • Incorrect – He enjoyed himself to give parties .
  • Correct – He enjoyed himself giving parties .

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